Palmitoyl tripeptide -1
The extracellular matrix (ECM) serves many functions in the human body, such as providing support and anchorage for cells, segregating tissues from one another, and regulating intercellular communication. It controls a wide range of cellular growth factors which regulate various cellular metabolisms. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the ECM which provides structural support to resident cells. On the other hand, elastin fibers are connected to each other, forming crosslinks to maintain tissue elasticity. As a result of this construction, the combination and synergy of collagen with elastin in the dermis play a major role in the overall elasticity and tension of the skin.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides the fundamental structure of the skin. It consists of an extracellular network of collagen, elastin, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. ECM is generated by fibroblasts and interacts with them, regulating the development, regeneration, and turnover of the skin. Tripeptide-1 is a natural constituent of human plasma necessary for producing healthy skin. It is generated during proteolytic degradation of proteins in the extracellular matrix after tissue injury and tissue turnover. Thus, it is claimed to be a growth-influencing factor and has been widely investigated as a wound-healing agent as it has the attribute of inducing fibroblast growth, collagen synthesis, and glycosaminoglycans production.
Tripeptide-1 is used to stimulate stem cell proliferation; The proliferation of stem cells, the body’s master cells, and the source of all cells and tissue such as brain, blood, heart, bones, muscles and skin, requires extremely low copper concentrations. When stem cells are exposed to higher copper levels, they progress into differentiated cells. Hence, Tripeptide-1 would increase proliferation of stem cells, while tripeptide-Cu increases their progression into differentiated cells. As stem cells are proliferated by Tripeptide-1, different functional cells including fibroblasts can be derived from stem cells.
Wrinkling is often associated with habitual facial expression, sun damage, smoking, poor hydration and, most importantly, the chronological ageing process. As people age, their skin structure deteriorates, and one of these crucial building blocks is elastin, a protein that helps keep the skin flexible and tight, providing the bounce-back effect when the skin is pulled. Elastin tends to deplete with age, and these changes in the scaffolding of the skin cause the skin to wrinkle and sag. Thus, not only the proliferation of elastin becomes extremely important in anti-ageing but also the proliferation of fibroblast, which produces elastin.
Skin is comprised of two types of important skin fibers: collagen and elastin. Collagen fibers, found in the reticular dermis, are the structural fibers of the skin. Elastin fibers, found in the papillary dermis, are the ‘rubber band’ fibers responsible for the ‘snap back’ quality of young skin.
Elastin is secreted by the fibrocytes, another form of fibroblast, and it is formed by spiral filaments. The spiral filaments consist of peptidic chains that can stretch out. After stretching out, the molecules resume their original shape due to this cross linking which is essential to molecular elasticity. Hexapeptide-12 is a repeated amino acids sequence in elastin produced by fibroblast. Hence, hexapeptide-12 demonstrates a positive effect on fibroblast production.